Friday, February 1, 2013

Applying for PAN, TIN, ST, TAN....

Now, if you have successfully set up your private limited company and received your Certification of Incorporation from the Ministry of Company Affairs, then congratulations on your maiden venture. But, remember that this is only the first step! Here comes the difficult part. The tax part. We know that Taxes are the life line of any nation, where a nation (or its people) pays for its own upkeep, maintenance and further development. So, as soon as you set up any profitable establishment, you are liable to be taxed under any Government and as the case goes, Indian taxation laws are one of the most complex in the whole world. so, we need to register with a bunch of departments for paying our taxes. Here's a basic list of tax departments and how to register with them. Please note that the list is not exhaustive and may contain a few more depending on your company's field of operation. 1. Department of Income Tax (Central Govt.)- Income Tax- Permanent Account Number (PAN): 2. Commercial Taxes Dept. (State Govt.) - Sales Tax - Tax payer's Identification Number (TIN) and Central Sales Tax (CST): 3. Central Excise Department (Central Govt.)- Service Tax - Service Tax (ST): 4. Department of Income Tax (Central Govt.)- Tax Deducted at Source - Tax Deduction Account Number(TAN):

Thursday, January 31, 2013

Upgrading from fedora 17 to fedora 18

Recently I upgraded my PC from Fedora 17 to Fedora 18 through the new and probably the only official method: FedUp (more info here). This overrides the previous upgrade method of pre-upgrade or through an install media (a DVD). There's still the option of upgrading using yum which you can refer here. Since, my internet connection can make it tedious for an yum upgrade, I decided to go with FedUp which supports the following methods of upgrade media:

Remember that you need to be logged in as a root or a sudo account to be able to do the following steps!

Through an iso image available in the local hard disk:
command: #fedup-cli --iso /path/to/isofile.iso --debuglog=fedupdebug.log

Through an install media, say a cdrom or DVD:
command: #fedup --device /path/to/mountpoint --debuglog=fedupdebug.log

Through a network connection:
command: #fedup --network 18 --debuglog fedupdebug.log

first I downloaded an iso file through a torrent file. Then I installed fedup with the command: yum install fedup.
After that I tried upgrading through my preferred method: through the downloaded iso file in my hard disk. To my dismay, it kept returning with an error: "iso file value" not found. I didn't know what went wrong and I couldn't find a solution online (I didn't put up any query in any of the forums though). So, I decided to go with the network method even though it meant waiting through the night. In the network method, it was going very well until some point where the system/display froze (a rare instance ever since I started using Fedora or any distro of linux for that matter). So, the network method had to be aborted and when I rebooted, the gdm(Gnome Desktop Manager) failed to initialise or froze up on login.

So, I had to login in to text mode with Ctrl+Alt+F2 or F3 or F4...F7. First I logged in as root and disabled the gdm running in the first shell with init 3 lest the system froze again. Then I used my DVD to upgrade. for this, I had to create the mount point manually: mkdir /media/cdrom and then mount the DVD after inserting the disc into the DVD drive: mount -t iso9660 /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom or mount -t iso9660 /dev/sr0 /media/cdrom. Then I gave the command: #fedup-cli --device --debuglog fedupdebug.log where the path to the mount point is optional as the command detects the mounted media by default and starts upgrading from it and also creates a link to the mount point for use in the next reboot. So, after I hit the command, the system started preparing for the upgrade by selecting the packages needed for upgrade and creating a list in the folder fedora-upgrade. After this stage I rebooted the system.

If your DVD is still in the DVD drive, then the system might select DVD by default while booting. If so, then select the option troubleshooting and select boot from local hard disk which will kick up the grub boot loader, where the default boot option is set to "system-upgrade" which would take us to the setup installing all the upgrades selected in the previous boot. Since I ejected the disk before the previous reboot, the system showed the grub bootloader screen with the "system-upgrade" option selected by default. Remember, that this options ("system-upgrade") is present only in the first reboot after the initial set-up, so if you didn't have the disk in the DVD tray and the up-gradation process aborts in the reboot, you'll have to run 'fedup' again from the begining. So, I let it boot in that option and inserted my install media - the Fedora 18 DVD into the DVD drive while the system-upgrade was searching for the DVD. You can choose to toogle between the plymouth process bar or the interactive text messages by hitting the 'Esc' key. This step of installation took me about 25 minutes. and the next reboot took me to Fedora 18 spherical cow, even though grub showed the default kernel name to be that of FC17.


Still my system froze up while loading GDM in bootup. I found a temporary solution:
While booting, press 'Esc' button while in grub boot options screen. Then press 'e' to edit the boot configuration of the selected option. Then identify the line that looks like :

"linux /vmlinuz-3.7.3-101.fc17.x86-64 root= /dev/ ... .... rhgd quiet"

and add a '3' at the end after leaving a space. This will boot up in the text mode, without firing up GDM while booting. Once there, login using your normal username and password (not your root login) and type 'startx' and ENTER. This will start up the GDM. Now, "All is well"!. Though I don't know what to do if the display freezes event after this.

Bottom line: FedUp has a lot to do before a normal user can use it. They might go for a clean install (which formats the hard disk before installation, so back up all the data before that!). In the mean time it is a big step as an upgrade tool and should be fun for those who are comfortable with tinkering in the CLI.